GLIMS Journal of Management Review
and Transformation
issue front

Jayanta Kumar Das1, Deepankar Sinha2 and Sujit Mukherjee3

First Published 4 May 2023.
Article Information
Corresponding Author:

Deepankar Sinha, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Kolkata Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal 700107, India.

1Indian Institute of Social Welfare & Business Management, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

2Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Kolkata Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

3Department of Management & Business Administration, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed.


India has about 12 major ports under the aegis of the Indian Government, in its approximately 7,500 km long coastline and competing with another 200 state- government-run ones. Over the last 20 years, the Indian government has implemented several reforms. This article answers two research questions. RQ1: Have port reforms improved port performance? RQ2: Do ports with overlapping hinterlands compete, or does one port’s performance complement the other? The article proposed a composite operational port performance index (PPI) and carried out a breakpoint (segmented) regression analysis to study the impact of port reforms. This article makes three crucial propositions––First, port performance affects its output, that is, the ship calls when competition is high, but the same does not hold if the port enjoys monopoly or oligopoly status or due to other factors such as cargo demand. Second, performance of ports with lower capacity, also referred to as satellite ports, is affected by the performance of its complementing ports with higher capacity. Third, Reforms may lead to competition and cannibalisation of profits and growth of ports in a dynamic environment.


Indian ports, port reforms, composite port performance index, port performance, ship calls causality, principal component analysis, segmented regression


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